Eubacteria, known as "true bacteria," are prokaryotic (lacking nucleus) cells that are very common in human daily life, encounter many more times than the archaebacteria. Eubacteria can be found almost everywhere and kill thousands upon thousands of people each year, but also serve as antibiotics producers and food digesters in our stomachs. We use Eubacteria to produce drugs, wine, and cheese.

Eubacteria are characterised by the following traits:
lack mitochondrions or chloroplasts
have a rigid cell wall made of peptidoglycan (rather than cellulose as found in plant cell walls)
flagella, if present, are made of single filament of the protein flagellin (unlike Eukarya)
a cell membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer that lacks cholestrol and steroids
no mitosis - mostly asexual reproduction
many eubacteria form spores, resistant to dehydration and most temperatures, when there is no food and can last up to 50 years.
all eubacteria are either spirilla (spiral shaped), bacilli (rod shaped), or cocci (spherical).


Eubacteria are usually divided into five phylums: Spirochetes, Chlamydias, Gram-positive bacteria, Cyanobacteria (formerly blue-green algae), and Proteobacteria. There are many types of bacteria, many of which are extremely similar, so you may see other groupings.

Gram-positive bacteria bind a stain known as "Gram's stain" to the peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Gram-negative bacteria have more complex cell walls and less peptidoglycan and therefore are unable to bind the stain to their cell walls.



Eubacteria are often divided into categories by their methods of nutrition acquisition:

Mode of Nutrition Energy Source Carbon Source
Photoautotroph Light CO2
Chemoautotroph Inorganic chemicals CO2
Light Organic compounds
Chemoheterotroph Organic chemicals Organic compounds



Eubacteria reproduce through a relatively simple process known as binary fission, meaning "division in half." Most DNA can be contained on a single chromosome, which can reach great lengths if stretched out, and the bacteria duplicate the information and split into two. Archaebacteria use the same process.