Excretory Case Study


A 23-year-old male felt puffy, weak, and tired for several months. He suddenly noticed his urine had a red to brown discoloration and the volume was minimal. He went to the emergency room of a nearby hospital and the following data were obtained upon examination and testing:



Serum sodium             125 mEq/L

Serum potassium        6 mEq/L

Serum creatinine         2.6 mg/dL

BUN     24.0 mg/dL

pH (arterial)     7.32

Hematocrit      25%



Appearance     Red to brown

Specific gravity            1.025

Blood   Positive

Glucose           Negative

Protein            Mild


Renal Function Tests:

GFR (glomerular filtration rate)          40 mL/min

RBF (renal blood flow)             280 mL/min


1. List the components of the urinary tract from the renal pelvis outward. Explain the role of the nephron in excretory system biochemistry.


2. What is the disorder of this individual?  What situation(s) predispose an individual to this disorder?


3. Define hyponatremia and hyperkalemia.


4. What is the cause of the hyponatremia and hyperkalemia?


5. Why is there blood in the urine?


6. How do the renal function tests for this individual compare to normal?


7. What caused the puffy feeling?


8. What type of treatment does this person need?


9. Is this person a candidate for kidney dialysis? Explain your answer.