Circulatory Case Study 2

 

A 49 year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital complaining that he had begun to tire on exertion (after a game of tennis) and that he had occasional heart palpitations.  He did not appear to be in acute distress at the time of examination.  He was not a smoker and was not overweight.  Physical examination revealed a moderate systolic ejection murmur.  After further studies, the patient was diagnosed with a stenosed (incompletely closed or excessively narrowed) aortic semilunar valve.

 

1.) Describe both pulmonary and systemic circulation in the body.

 

2.) Distinguish between arteries, veins and capillaries both functionally and structurally. Describe the composition and functions of blood.

 

3 .) How would the patient’s heart sounds compare to a healthy individual?

 

4.)What are the effects of aortic stenosis on ventricular blood flow and stroke volume.

 

5.) Given this patient's pathology, predict the changes in pressure (increase / decrease / no change) that would be measured:

 

a.     Right atrium

b.    Right ventricle

c.     Left atrium

d.    Left ventricle (systolic)

e.     Aorta (systolic)

 

6.)  Explain why the patient is “normal” at rest and symptomatic only during exertion.

 

7.) Discuss treatment options for aortic stenosis.